Traveling on Indian Roads is an almost hallucinatory potion of sound, spectacle
and experience. It is frequently heart-rending, sometimes hilarious, mostly
exhilarating, always unforgettable -- and, when you are on the roads, extremely
Most Indian road users observe a version of the Highway Code based on a
Sanskrit text. These 12 rules of the Indian road are published for the first
time in English:
The assumption of immortality is required of all road users.
Indian traffic, like Indian society, is structured on a strict caste system.
The following precedence must be accorded at all times. In descending order,
give way to:
Cows, elephants, heavy trucks, buses, official cars, camels, light
trucks, buffalo, jeeps, ox-carts, private cars, motorcycles, scooters,
auto-rickshaws, pigs, pedal rickshaws, goats, bicycles (goods-carrying),
handcarts, bicycles (passenger-carrying), dogs, pedestrians.
All wheeled vehicles shall be driven in accordance with the maxim: to
slow is to falter, to brake is to fail, to stop is defeat. This is the
Indian drivers' mantra.
Use of horn (also known as the sonic fender or aural amulet):
Short blasts (urgent) indicate supremacy, IE in clearing dogs,
rickshaws and pedestrians from path.
Long blasts (desperate) denote supplication, IE to oncoming truck:
"I am going too fast to stop, so unless you slow down we shall both
die". In extreme cases this may be accompanied by flashing of headlights
Single blast (casual) means: "I have seen someone out of
India's870 million whom I recognize", "There is a bird in
the road (which at this speed could go through my windscreen)"
or "I have not blown my horn for several minutes."
Trucks and buses (IV,2,a):
All horn signals have the same meaning, viz: "I have an all-up weight
of approximately 12.5 tons and have no intention of stopping, even if I
could." This signal may be emphasized by the use of headlamps.
Article IV remains subject to the provision of Order of Precedence in
Article II above.
All maneuvers, use of horn and evasive action shall be left until the
last possible moment.
In the absence of seat belts (which there is), car occupants shall wear
garlands of marigolds. These should be kept fastened at all times.
Rights of way:
Traffic entering a road from the left has priority. So has traffic
from the right, and also traffic in the middle.
Lane discipline (VII,1):
All Indian traffic at all times and irrespective of direction of
travel shall occupy the center of the road.
Roundabouts: India has no roundabouts. Apparent traffic islands in the
middle of crossroads have no traffic management function. Any other
impression should be ignored.
Overtaking is mandatory. Every moving vehicle is required to overtake
every other moving vehicle, irrespective of whether it has just overtaken
Overtaking should only be undertaken in suitable conditions, such as in
the face of oncoming traffic, on blind bends, at junctions and in the middle
of villages/city centers. No more than two inches should be allowed between your vehicle
and the one you are passing -- and one inch in the case of bicycles or
Nirvana may be obtained through the head-on crash.
Reversing: no longer applicable since no vehicle in India has reverse