Masnavi 2F

HomeIranPoetryMowlana Jalaluddin Rumi - Masnavi Stories

STORY IX. The King and his Three Sons.
A certain king had three sons, who were the light of his eyes, and, as it were,
a fountain whence the palm tree of his heart drank the water of bliss. One day
he called his sons before him and commanded them to travel through his realm,
and to inspect the behavior of the governors and the state of the
administration; and he strictly charged them not to go near a particular fort
which he named. But, according to the saying, "Man hankers after what is
forbidden," the three princes disobeyed their father, and, before going
anywhere else, proceeded to visit this fort. The result was, that they fell
into calamities, and had occasion to repeat the text, "Had we but
hearkened or understood, we had not been among the dwellers in the flame."
1 The fort was full of pictures, images and forms, and amongst them was
a portrait of a beautiful damsel, the daughter of the King of China, which made
such a deep impression on the three princes that they all became distracted
with love and determined to journey to the court of the King of China and sue for
the hand of his daughter.
The significance of forms. 2
Be not intoxicated with these goblets of forms,
Lest you become a maker and worshipper of idols.
Pass by these cups full of forms, linger not;
There is wine in the cups, but it proceeds not from them.
Look to the Giver of the wine with open mouth;
When His wine comes, is not cup too small to hold it?
O Adam, seek the reality of my love,
Quit the mere husk and form of the wheat.
When sand was made meal for "The Friend of God," 3
Know, O master, the form of wheat was dispensed with.
Form proceeds from the world that is without form,
Even as smoke arises from fire.
The Divine art without form designs forms (ideals), 4
Those forms fashion bodies with senses and instruments.
Whatever the form, it fashions in its own likeness
Those bodies either to good or to evil.
If the form be blessing, the man is thankful;
If it be suffering, he is patient;
If it be cherishing, he is cheerful;
If it be bruising, he is full of lamentation!
Since all these forms are slaves of Him without form,
Why do they deny their Lord and Master?
They exist only through Him that is without form;
What, then, means their disavowal of their Sustainer?
This very denial of Him proceeds from Him,
This act is naught but a reflection from Himself!
The forms of the walls and roofs of houses
Know to be shadows of the architect's thought;
Although stones and planks and bricks
Find no entrance into the sanctuary of thought,
Verily the Absolute Agent is without form,
Form is only a tool in His hands.
Sometimes that Formless One of His mercy
Shows His face to His forms from behind the veil of Not-being,
That every form may derive aid therefrom,
From its perfect beauty and power.
Again, when that Formless One hides His face,
Those forms set forth their needs.
If one form sought perfection from another form,
That would be the height of error.
Why then, O simpleton, do you set forth your needs
To one who is as needy as yourself?
Since forms are slaves, apply them not to God,
Seek not to use a form as a similitude of God. 5
Seek Him with humbleness and self-abasement,
For thought yields naught but forms of thought.
Still, if you are unable to dispense with forms,
Those occurring independently of your thought are best. 6
The "Truth," which is our real self, lies hidden within our
phenomenal and visible self, and the Prophets reveal it to us.
"Now have we seen what the king saw at the first,
When that Incomparable One adjured us."
The prophets have many claims to our gratitude,
Because they forewarn us of our ultimate lot,
Saying, "What ye sow will yield only thorns;
If ye fly that way, ye will fly astray.
Take seed of us to yield you a good harvest,
Fly with our wings to hit the mark with your arrow.
Now ye know not the truth and nature of the 'Truth,' 7
But at the last ye will cry, 'That was the "Truth."'
The Truth is yourself, but not your mere bodily self,
Your real self is higher than 'you' and 'me.'
This visible 'you' which you fancy to be yourself
Is limited in place, the real 'you' is not limited.
Why, O pearl, linger you trembling in your shell?
Esteem not yourself mere sugar-cane, but real sugar.
This outward 'you' is foreign to your real ' you;'
Cling to your real self, quit this dual self.
Your last self attains to your first (real) self
Only through your attending earnestly to that union.
Your real self lies hid beneath your outward self,
For 'I am the servant of him who looks into himself.' " 8
"What a youth sees only when reflected in a glass,
Our wise old fathers saw long ago though hid in stones.
But we disobeyed the advice of our father,
And rebelled against his affectionate counsels.
We made light of the king's exhortations,
And slighted his matchless intimations.
Now we have all fallen into the ditch,
Wounded and crushed in this fatal struggle.
We relied on our own reason and discernment,
And for that cause have fallen into this calamity.
We fancied ourselves free from defects of sight,
Even as those affected by color-blindness.
Now at last our hidden disease has been revealed,
After we have been involved in these calamities."
"The shadow of a guide is better than directions to God,
To be satisfied is better than a hundred nice dishes.
A seeing eye is better than a hundred walking-sticks,
Eye discerns jewels from mere pebbles."
The princes ascertained the name of the lady depicted in the fort from an old
Shaikh, who warned them of the perils they would encounter on their journey to
China, and told them that the King of China would not bestow his favor on those
who tried to gain it by tricks and clever stratagems, but solely on those who
were prepared to yield up their lives to him, according to the saying,
"Die before you die." This is illustrated by an anecdote of a Chief
of Bokhara, who made it a rule never to bestow his bounty on beggars who asked
for it, but only on those who awaited his pleasure in silence. A certain Faqir
tried many stratagems to evade this rule, but his craft was at once seen
through by the Chief, and turned to his own confusion. The thesis that the
unbought free grace of God is superior to any blessing obtainable by human
exertion and contrivance is further illustrated by an absurd anecdote of two
youths, one of whom trusted for protection to his own contrivance, and found it
a broken reed. The Prophet said, "Two there are who are never satisfied
the lover of the world and the lover of knowledge;" and he who loves
knowledge will continue to trust in his knowledge, in spite of all exhortations
and experience. But the eldest prince advised his brothers to risk the perils
and persevere in the journey, reminding them that "Patience is the key of
joy." Accordingly they abandoned their country and their parents, like
Ibrahim Adham, who renounced the throne of Balkh, and like the old Arabian king
Amru'l Qais, who fled from the pursuit of his female adorers to seek the
Spiritual Beloved in a far country.
How the princes discoursed with one another in figurative language concerning
their beloved mistress.
They told their secrets to one another in dark sayings,
Speaking beneath their breath in fear and trembling.
None but God was privy to their secrets,
None but Heaven was partner in their sighs.
Yea, they used technical expressions one to another,
And possessed intelligence to extract the sense.
The vulgar learn the words of this "language of birds," 9
And make boast of their mastery thereof;
But these words are only the outward form of the language,
The "raw" man is ignorant of the birds' meaning.
He is the true Solomon who knows the birds' language,
A demon, though he usurp his kingdom, is quite another.
The demon has taken upon him the form of Solomon,
His knowledge is fraud, not "what we have been taught."
When Solomon was blessed with inspiration from God,
He learned birds' language from "what we were taught."
But thou art only a bird of the air; understand then
That thou hast never seen the true spiritual birds!
The nest of the Simurgh is beyond Mount Qaf, 10
Not every thought can attain thereto;
Save thoughts which catch a glimpse thereof,
And after the vision are again shut off.
Yet not all shut off, rather intermitted for a wise end,
For the blessing abides, though shut off and hidden!
In order to preserve that body which is as a soul,
The Sun is veiled for a while behind a cloud;
In order not to melt that soul-like body,
The Sun withdraws itself as from ice.
For thy soul's sake seek counsel of these inspired ones. 11
Ah! rob not their words of their technical meanings!
Zulaikha applied to Yusuf the names of all things,
Beginning with wild rue and ending with frankincense.
She veiled his name under all other names,
And imparted her secret meaning to her confidants.
When she said, "The wax is melted by the fire,"
She meant, "My lover is wroth with me."
So when she said, "See, the moon is risen!"
Or, "Lo! the willow-bough is putting forth leaves;"
Or if she said, "The leaves quiver in the wind,"
Or, "The wild rue yields perfume as it burns;"
Or if she said, "The rose tells her tale to the Bulbul,"
Or, "The king sings his love-strain;"
Or if she said, "Ah! what a blessed lot!"
Or, "Who hath disturbed my heart's repose?"
Or if she said, "The water-carrier hath brought water,"
Or, "Lo! the sun emerges from the clouds;"
Or if she said, "Last night the victuals were boiled,"
Or, "The food was perfectly cooked;"
Or if she said, "My bread is without savor"
Or, "The heavens are revolving the wrong way;
Or if she said, "My head aches with pain,"
Or, "My headache is now relieved;"
If she gave thanks, 'twas for being united to Yusuf;
If she wailed, 'twas that she was separated from him.
Though she gave vent to thousands of names,
Her meaning and purport was only Yusuf;
Was she an hungred, when she pronounced his name,
She became filled and cheered by his nourishment.
Her thirst was quenched by Yusuf's name,
His name was spiritual water to her soul.
Was she in pain, by pronouncing his mighty name
At once her pain was turned into joy.
In the cold it was a warm garment;
Her lover's name accomplished all this through love.
Strangers may pronounce the "pure name" of God,
Yet it effects no such marvels, for they lack love.
All that 'Isa accomplished by the name of Jehovah,
Zulaikha attained through the name "Yusuf."
When the soul is intimately united with God,
To name the one is the same as naming the other.
Zulaikha was empty of self and filled with love of Yusuf,
And there flowed out of her jar what it contained.
The scent of the saffron of union made her smile,
The stench of the onion of separation made her weep.
Each to have in his heart a hundred meanings,
Such is not the creed of true love and devotion.
"The Friend" is to the lover as day to the sun,
The material sun is a veil over the face of the real day.
Whoso distinguishes not the veil from "The Friend's" face
Is a worshipper of the sun; of such a one beware!
"The Friend" is the real day, and daily food of lovers,
The heart and the heart's torment of His lovers.
After enduring many toils and misfortunes the three princes at last arrived in
the metropolis of China, and thereupon the eldest prince expressed his
intention of presenting himself before the king, as he could wait no longer.
His brothers tried to dissuade him from risking his life, pointing out that if
he acted on blind impulse and vain conceit he would surely go astray, for
"a conceit hath naught of truth;" 12 and they further urged
him to listen to the counsels of the Pir, or Spiritual Director. But the eldest
brother refused to be dissuaded from his purpose, saying he would no longer
hide his passion for his beloved, like one who beats a drum under a blanket,
but would proclaim it openly, and take the risk of whatever might ensue. He
added that he was convinced that he should obtain his desire in some way or
other, if not in the way that he expected; according to the text, "Whoso
feareth God, to him will he grant a prosperous issue, and will provide for him
in a way he reckoned not." 13 Seekers after God fancy that He is
far from them, and that they must travel far to reach Him; but these are both
erroneous suppositions; and just as arithmeticians work out true answers to
their problems by the "Method of Errors," 14 so must the
seekers of God from these errors work out the conviction that God is very nigh
to them that call upon Him faithfully. To illustrate this an anecdote is told
of a man of Baghdad who was in great distress, and who, after calling on God
for aid, dreamt that a great treasure lay hid in a certain spot in Egypt. He
accordingly journeyed to Egypt, and there fell into the hands of the patrol,
who arrested him, and beat him severely on suspicion of being a thief. Calling
to mind the proverb that "falsehood is a mischief but truth a
remedy," 15 he determined to confess the true reason of his coming
to Egypt, and accordingly told them all the particulars of his dream. On
hearing them they believed him, and one of them said, "You must be a fool
to journey all this distance merely on the faith of a dream. I myself have many
times dreamt of a treasure lying hid in a certain spot in Baghdad, but was
never foolish enough to go there." Now the spot in Baghdad named by this
person was none other than the house of the poor man of Baghdad, and he
straightway returned home, and there found the treasure. And he gave thanks,
and recognized how "God causes ease to follow troubles," 16
and how "Men hate what is good for them," 17 and how God
delays the answer to prayer, and allows men to remain poor and hungry for a
season, in order to make them call upon Him, even as the Prophet said, "My
servant is a lute which sounds best when it is empty."
Why the answer to prayer is delayed.
Ah! many earnest suppliants wail forth prayers,
Till the smoke of their wailing rises to heaven;
Yea, the perfume of the incense of sinners' groans
Mounts up above the lofty roof of heaven.
Then the angels supplicate God, saying,
"O Thou that hearest prayer and relievest pain,
Thy faithful slave is bowing down before Thee.
He knows of none on whom to rely save Thee;
Thou bestowest favors on the helpless.
Every suppliant obtains his desire from Thee."
God makes answer, "The delay in granting his prayer
Is intended to benefit him, not to harm him.
His pressing need draws him from his negligence to me;
Yea, drags him by the hair into my courts.
If I at once remove his need he will go away,
And will be destroyed in his idle sports.
Though he is wailing with heartfelt cry of 'O Aider!'
Bid him wail on with broken heart and contrite breast.
His voice sounds sweet in my ears,
And his wailing and cries of' O God!'
In this way by supplication and lamentation
He prevails with me altogether."
It is on account of their sweet voices
That choice parrots and nightingales are jailed in cages.
Ugly owls and crows 18 are never jailed in cages;
Such a thing was never heard of in history.
The disappointments of the pious, be sure,
Are appointed for this wise purpose.
The eldest brother then delayed no longer, but rushed into the presence of the
King and kissed his feet. The King, like a good shepherd, was well aware of the
troubles and cravings of his sheep. He knew that the prince had abjured earthly
rank and dignity through love for his daughter, even as a Sufi casts away his
robe when overpowered by ecstatic rapture. The only reason why the prince had
lagged behind in the race and not presented himself to the King before was that
hitherto he had lacked the "inner eye" or spiritual sense which
discerns spiritual verities, and had been consequently blind to the King's
perfections. They who lack this inner spiritual sense can no more appreciate
spiritual pleasures than a man lacking the sense of smell can enjoy the perfume
of flowers, or a eunuch the society of fair women. But his eyes had now been
opened by the King's grace, and he had escaped from the bondage of worldly lusts
and illusions, and, taught by experience, had resolved never again to be led
captive by them.
This is illustrated by the anecdote of the Qazi who was beguiled by the wife of
a dwarf. The dwarf and his wife were very poor, and one day the dwarf said to his
wife, "God has given you arched brows and arrowy glances and all manner of
witchery; go and ensnare some rich man, so that we may extract money from
him!" So the woman went to the court of the Qazi, pretending to have a
grievance; and when she saw the Qazi she beguiled him, and induced him to pay
her a visit at night. While the Qazi was sitting with her the dwarf returned
home and knocked violently at the door, and the Qazi, in a great fright, hid
himself in a large chest. The dwarf at once fetched a porter, and told him to
take the chest to the bazar and sell it. On the way to the bazar the Qazi cried
out to the porter to fetch the Deputy; and when the Deputy came he redeemed the
chest for one hundred Dinars, and thus the Qazi escaped. Next year the woman
went to the court and tried to seduce the Qazi a second time; but he said,
"Begone; I have escaped from your toils once, and will not fall into them
again. The action of the Deputy in freeing the Qazi reminds the poet of the
saying of the Prophet, "Of him, of whom I am the master, 'Ali also is
master," and is therefore able to free him from slavery.
The eldest prince at last fell sick of hope deferred, and gave up the ghost.
But though he failed to obtain the King's daughter, the object of his earthly
attachment, he obtained union with the King, the real spiritual object of his
love, and the eternal fruition of dwelling in Him.
The joys of union with the Spiritual Beloved are inexpressible in speech.
In short, the King cherished him lovingly,
And he like a moon waned in that sun.
That waning of lovers makes them wax stronger,
Just as the moon waxes brighter after waning.
Ordinary sick persons crave a remedy for sickness
But the lovesick one cries, "Increase my waning!
I have never tasted wine sweeter than this poison,
No health can be sweeter than this sickness!
No devotion is better than this sin (of love),
Years are as a moment compared to this moment!"
Long time he dwelt with the King in this manner,
With burning heart, as a lively sacrifice.
Thus his life passed, yet he gained not the union He wished.
Patient waiting consumed him, his soul could not bear it;
He dragged on life with pain and gnashing of teeth.
At last life ended before he had attained his desire.
The form of his earthly Beloved was hidden from him;
He departed, and found union with his Spiritual Beloved.
Then he said, "Though she lacks clothes of silk and wool,
'Tis sweeter to embrace her without those veils.
I have become naked of the body and its illusions,
I am admitted into the most intimate union."
The story admits of being told up to this point,
Bat what follows is hidden and inexpressible in words.
If you should speak and try a hundred ways to express it,
'Tis useless; the mystery becomes no clearer.
You can ride on saddle and horse up to the sea-coast,
But then you must use a horse of wood (i.e., a boat).
A horse of wood is useless on dry land,
It is the special conveyance of voyagers by sea.
Silence is this horse of wood,
Silence is the guide and support of men at sea.
This Silence which causes you annoyance
Is uttering cries of love audible to the spiritual.
You say, "How strange the spiritual man is silent!"
He answers, "How strange you have no ears!
Though I utter cries, you hear them not;
Sensual ears, however sharp, are deaf to my cries."
The spiritual man, as it were, cries in his sleep,
Uttering thousands of words of comfort;
While the carnal man at his side hears nothing at all,
For he is asleep, and deaf to the other's voice.
But the perfect spiritualist who has broken his boat
Plunges into the sea as a fish of the sea (of Truth).
He is then neither silent nor speaking, but a mystery.
No words are available to express his condition.
That marvelous one is in neither of these states
'Twould be irreverent to explain his state more fully.
These illustrations are weak and inappropriate,
But no fitter ones are obtainable from sensible objects.
When the eldest prince died, the youngest was sick and could not come; but the
second brother came to the court to attend his funeral. There the King observed
him, and took pity on him and entreated him kindly. He instilled into him
spiritual knowledge of the verities hidden beneath phenomenal objects, and
conveyed to him as deep a perception of spiritual truths as is not gained by a
Sufi after years of fasting and retirement from the world. It is a fact, that
when the pure spirit escapes from the bonds of the body, God gives it sight to
behold the things of the spirit. The logician denies the possibility of this
divine illumination of the heart, but he is confuted by the Prophet, who swore
"by the star" that the Koran was revealed to him by divine
illumination. 19 Those who cleave to their heresy (Bid'at) and
obstinate unbelief are like to incur the punishment inflected on the tribe of
'Ad for disbelieving the Prophet Hud. 20 Earthly forms are only shadows
of the Sun of the Truth, a cradle for babes, but too small to hold those who
have grown to spiritual manhood. When the prince was thus nourished by the
spiritual food given him by the King, which was such as the angels of heaven
subsist upon, not the unspiritual food of Christians and those who give
partners to God, he began to be puffed up with self-conceit, and forgot what he
owed to the King, and rebelled against him. The King was cut to the heart by
his ingratitude, which exactly resembled that of Nimrod. When Nimrod was an
infant he was taken by his mother to sea, and the ship being wrecked, all that
were in it perished, save only the infant Nimrod who was saved through the pity
of Izrail, the Angel of Death. God spared him, and nurtured him without the aid
of mother or nurse; but when he grew up he proved ungrateful, and was puffed up
with self-conceit and egotism, and showed enmity against God and Abraham His
servant. When the prince found himself cast off by the King he came to himself,
and repented and humbled himself with deep contrition. The King then pardoned
him; but his doom had already been decreed by God, and he was slain by the King
he had injured, acknowledging the King's goodness to him with his latest
The death of the second prince.
In short, the vengeance of That Jealous One (God)
After one year bore him to the grave.
When the King awoke out of his trance to consciousness,
His Mars-like eyes shed tears of blood.
When that incomparable one looked into his quiver,
He saw that one of his arrow-shafts was missing.
He cried to God, "What has become of my arrow?"
God answered, "Thy arrow is fixed in his throat!"
That King, bountiful as the sea, had pardoned him;
Nevertheless his arrow had dealt him a mortal wound.
He was slain, and cried out with his last breath,
"The King is all in all, my slayer and my savior.
If he is not both these, he is not all in all;
Nay, he is both my slayer and my mourner!"
That expiring martyr also gave thanks,
That the King had smitten his body, not his spirit;
For the visible body must perforce perish,
Ere the spirit can live in happiness for evermore.
Though he incurred chastisement, it affected his body only,
And as a friend he now goes, free of pain, to his Friend.
Thus at first he clung to the King's stirrup,
But at last went his way guided by perfect sight.
Finally, the youngest brother, who was the weakest of all, succeeded where his
brothers had failed, and obtained his earthly mistress, the king's daughter, as
his bride, and the Spiritual Beloved as well.
Here the Masnavi breaks off; but, according to the Bulaq edition, the following
conclusion was supplied by Jalalu-'d-Din's son, Bahau-'d-Din Sultan Valad:
Part of the story remains untold; it was retained
In his mind and was not disclosed.
The story of the princes remains unfinished,
The pearl of the third brother remains unstrung.
Here speech, like a camel, breaks down on its road;
I will say no more, but guard my tongue from speech.
The rest is told without aid of tongue
To the heart of him whose spirit is alive.